Among the human channels of expression, music is perhaps the richest. Music allows to express emotions, in a continuum that goes from joy to pain, from exaltation to depression, in socially and culturally accessible and acceptable ways. The volume takes the from the point of view of cognitive science and addresses the aspects involved both in producing and in listening to music. These topics, which may seem not so easy to understand to non-specialists, are approached in a clear and accessible language. An exciting journey is thus built on some of the aspects of man's relationship with music, which highlights how the long journey from the first sounds that humans have produced and identified in nature, up to the most modern compositions, is the result of a rationalisation process focused on the multiform relationship between man, environment and musical creation.