The defeat of French democracy and the success of the reaction throughout Europe between 1848 and 1849 fuelled profound discussions among the communities of exiles and in national movements about the future of the democratic movement, while important organisational experiments of international level were developing. The Italian movement intensely participated in the construction of the committees for action and in the conceptual elaboration that saw republican, socialist, communist and anarchist orientations opposing around themes such as the universal republic and the social question. Mazzini, first of all, then Montanelli, Cattaneo, Ferrari, Macchi, Pianciani, Pisacane, were interlocutors of an international community that included Ledru Rollin, Blanc, Blanqui, Herzen, Hugo, Coeurderoy, Déjacque, Marx, Engels and many others. The Italian Risorgimento thus poured out fundamental themes for the development of democracy and national construction in an intense confrontation which, if did not prevent the loss of hegemony against the moderates, laid solid foundations for the development of democratic movements in the united Italy within a European framework.
University of Florence, Italy