How was the profile defined for aspiring university professors of a new and controversial discipline such as scientific psychology at the turn of the twentieth century? Who made these assessments when there were as yet no or insufficient professors in the sector? What effect did the hegemonic cultural and political orientations – the ostracism of Croce and Gentile – have on the quality of the discipline, on the fate of the single scholars and on the range of recruitment and academic career mechanisms? A journey into the history of highly topical issues through sources from institutional and private archives. From the liberal age to fascism, the volume concentrates on the first, prestigious Istituto di Psicologia in Italy, set up in Florence by Pasquale Villari, and on the traumatic stories, culminating in the anti-Jewish laws from 1938, of three generations of teachers beginning in 1903.