Geographical differentials of development derive from regional specializations. As classical political economics advised, they are what actively or passively create, and each one with more or less intensity, inter-regional commerce and the nations' different capacities to produce wealth. It is not only through categories of the economy that this capacity can be interpreted: equally as salient factors are the eco-system conditions, cultures and the state formation process. But it is true that the market for a long time has been the form of organization of human behaviour aimed at creating surplus within which this capacity is expressed, distinctly takes shape and gradually builds different pictures from that, since the second half of the twentieth century, usually defined as «economic development». The different capacity of places to produce wealth, in the same way as regional specializations, is indeed subject to endless evolution; the process is long term, very long term, and is characterized by clear but changing geographical regularities, within which moments of accelerated change can yet also be seen. By observing it from a geographical point of view, this work tries to fit the pieces back together, starting from the advent of so-called «capitalism» and going onto look at the logic and rules of the current configurations.