The volume presents the results of an extensive survey on the overall situation of the oil market and on the Italian olive-oil production supply chain. According to the results of this survey, two possible development perspectives are identified. The first follows the prevailing EU guidelines that favour specialized olive growing. The second points to an enhancement of agriculture where it presents particularly relevant social aspects. In this perspective, the various olive crops present in the country should be considered not in a homogeneous way, but valued in relation to the different functions performed, not necessarily expressible in terms of yields.